Monday, 16 November 2009



God the Creator has created the heavens and the earth with all its contents, and man created in the image of his God given mandate to dominate and conquer nature's God's creation.
Unfortunate if the human and natural to neglect God's creation, or perhaps working on it but without the approval of God, because only intended for mere complacency. People should develop themselves and their ability in science and technology (technology) to pursue nature for the welfare of all mankind. Not to mention the later occurs the tension between faith and technology. Where should they be in line with each other even attempt to eliminate bias.
The Bible gives us a way how to live in faith and still learning to develop and utilize technology (which has been selected) for the welfare of all mankind and for His glory.

1. Background

Humans live in a changing world. Changes were happening so fast, so often times are not overtaken by those who want to learn it. Rapid change was spurred by developments in science and technology. Technology is the application of science in human life to facilitate various activities undertaken, and in turn bring prosperity to all mankind. Mastery of technology is a top priority of developed countries. Those who master the technology will be able to conquer the world.
In the meantime, there are believers (read: Christian) who have not agreed to learn, understand and use technology, let alone advancing technology itself. Because the technology is the result of reason or the reason, then it is considered contrary to the faith. Whereas many contemporary church services supported by the results of many technological developments: the physical structure, benches and pulpit, lighting, musical instruments, printed matter, presentation facilities (overhead projector, or LCD), vehicles, and many others.
On the other hand, for the technologists themselves, faith is seen as a barrier to technological progress because they are believing something unreasonable.
Struggle comes even tension between technology and faith. Some classic titles by John William Draper (1811-1882), "History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science,", writing Andrew Dickson White (1832 - 1918), "Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom," and by George Burman Foster "Finality of the Christian Religion," (1892) shows that the struggle between them continued.
This paper was made with the intent to see the extent to which the struggle took place and tries to provide a solution to overcome these tensions.

2. Glance History of Science and Technology (Science)

In order to understand the tension between Science and Faith is very wise to briefly look at the development of Science and the extent to which Christians are involved in it.
3.1. Ancient Age

As part of the culture, technology is as old as human life. In Genesis 4:20-22 can be read like the names Yabal, Yubal, and Tubal-Cain and the technology industry and they control, namely the camp (civil engineering and architecture), livestock (agricultural technology, animal husbandry, and fisheries), arts (supporting technology entertainment), and carpentry (mechanical engineering and industrial engineering).
Babylonian nations, Sidon, ancient Egyptian, Sumerian, the Inca (Mexico) has produced a variety of technical equipment or their technology works great, ie, in their efforts to overcome various difficulties and challenges of life.

3.2. Medieval

In the Middle Ages some science experiments and various new theories began to be done. Beginning with Franciscus of Assisi (1182-1226) who founded the Order Fratrum Minorum (OFM) or the Civil Order of Hina-dina. The followers of the Order was forced to put the interests of the content of the created world and all its beauty. One of a priest named Roger Bacon (1220-1292) dedicated his Opus Maius (Great Works) which is a summary of the scientific ideas of that era.
Special on astronomy (astronomy), the church and the people at that time held the geocentric theory advanced by Claudius Ptolemy (100-168 ±), where the earth the center of circulation of the planets.

Modern 3.3.Zaman

What is meant by the modern technology era began in the Renaissance (XV and XVI centuries). Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), for example, is known not only as an artist and sculptor, but also an architect, engineer, philosopher and good conduct experiments in the field of optics, mechanics, and hydraulics.
So at that time experiment (the experiment) and the investigation plays an important role in the science and technology. Inventions such as: binoculars stars, microscopes, thermometers, barometers plane pendulum, tools anatomy, and so on, giving a powerful impetus to the development of science and technology. Several prominent scientists who lived in those days, among others: Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), Giordano Bruno (1547-1600), who suggested ideas related to cosmology (the doctrine of all things can be known about the universe, especially about the occurrence.
Technology becomes more developed because of Francis Bacon (1561-1626), a British statesman and pioneer of the philosophy of empiricism states, "Knowledge is power!" He argues that the only basis of knowledge is sensory experience alone.
The most prominent figure, and finally break the old cosmology was Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). His writings on astronomy to get opposition from Church leaders at that time. Later, René Descartes (1596-1650) wrote the book La Monde in which for the first time someone tried to explain the universe in terms of mechanics. Descartes was able to reconcile the theology was the theology of Thomas Aquinas with mechanical ideas of the new science.
Then came E. Toricelli (1608-1647) is famous for his investigations of the barometer (heavy gauge air pressure). Then this tool evolved into a thermometer which is accomplished by GD Fahrenheit (1686-1736). There is also the name of Robert Boyle (1627-1691) in the field of chemistry-physics. Famous scientist Isaac Newton (1642-1727) became a blessing to the world with the theory of gravity. He was a faithful Christian worship, and uses the same time much to theology as to science. This order of the universe is proof of the existence and goodness of God. Other characters are G.W. Leibniz (1646-1716) as a historian, law, language, science and nature, theology and philosophy.
In the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries following a close cooperation between natural science and technology bringing forth what he called "the first Industrial Revolution", in which there appeared the famous names such as:
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), an exact science, nature and astronomy. Though he became blind, but still active in almost every field of science.
James Watt (1736-1819) maker of construction equipment and machine engineering, inventor of the steam engine.
A.L. Lavoisier (1743-1794) who proved that oxygen plays an important role in combustion
John Dalton (1766-1844) laid the foundation for the modern atomic theory and to formulate some basic laws of chemistry.
André Ampère (1775-1836) who engaged the electric current
Michael Faraday (1791-1867) who came from groups who believe every word in the Bible literally, so he approached all things straight and simple.
J.C. Maxwell (1831-1879) who put forward the theories of the nature of atomic physics.

Entering the twentieth century and beyond continue to occur discoveries extraordinary, among others:
Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) inventor of the incandescent lamp
Wilbur Wright (1867-1912) with his brother, Orville Wirght, who pursue aviation issues
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) who created the theory of relativity, which is the basis of the theory Kwantum. In 1921 he received the Nobel Prize.
And so on evolving science and technology can be perceived as benefits and dangers of this XXI century.

3. Religious Factors in the Scientific Revolution

In the period between the XII and XVII century, a series of important events along with the emergence of the group akelompok great thinkers. Time really is masapenyelidikan and discoveries in all fields: the geographic, intellectual, social and positive attention to the nature and human dignity.
In the early Middle Ages and the cultural life of technology from the nobility and the monks extended to ordinary citizens. Thought sharp trader groups promote rational and critical attitude, apart from habit retained by the priyayi and bureaucrats. Indeed all these factors there are in other cultures before: in China or in Greece or pad Amasa glorious Islamic culture. Even so, it is not the revolution of knowledge in the cultural environment. This fact has encouraged scholars to consider the possibility of influence of Christianity on the dawn of science. Although not all of them, but many scholars argue that the influence of Christianity is a decisive factor.
At that time, the Church took hesitant attitude toward the emergence of science. Old Church clung to the teachings of Augustine of Hippo, who argued that science should not be pursued for the sake of science itself alone, but must be for the glory of God and devotion to science for theology. But the universities founded by the Emperor Karl the Great (742-814) in the ninth century and the growth of monasteries led Christian agara began looking for positive aspects of the teaching of classical (ie Greek and Roman) and attitudes that accompany it. In the Eastern Christian world, the ancient Greeks thought it was integrated with Christian lessons in schools and linked with the worship of God and the Wisdom of God. For reasons of theological and political, this approach is not accepted in the Western world. So this Byzantine tradition was not initially considered and then because of the victory of the Turks, eventually lost.
But during the Scientific Revolution, some traditions of the Orthodox Church until well into the Western world. Even more important is that the result of the intellectual progress of the Moslems, Western scholars have given attention to the positive aspects of this Greek tradition. In the XII century Islamic universities in Spain have started to determine the rhythm of university advancement and defense of religion. This is a challenge for Christians. Establishment of Christian universities and the establishment of the Dominican Order is part of the Church response to this challenge. The result is the work of Thomas Aquinas who took over the superiority of Islamic scholars with "menasranikan" Aristotle. And at the time of Aristotle diassimilasikan among Christian scholars, philosophy is seen as heresy.
On the one hand efforts of Christian scholars have restored the intellectual integrity of Christianity, and on the other hand and at the same time explaining the position and limit the role of reason and thought. Clear distinction between mind and revelation, giving the role of reason and devotion in the formulation of the faith and the pressure again that God acts in "reasonable", it was possible the emergence of a scientific movement that can not have been possible before. That all is the contribution of the mind of Thomas Aquinas is very valuable and decisive. He was especially reaffirming the doctrine of Creation according to Christian understanding. He brings the idea of Main Drive (by Aristotle) with the idea of God and the Father of Jesus Christ. This revived interest in the Christian order and discipline will be in the universe.
Doctrine of Creation (which is more aligned with the Redemption) implies that nature can be understood, subject to the laws and the department regularly. This has become one of modern science standards that do not question anymore. This view also states that the details of Creation can only be known by watching him, - something that is recognized by Aristotle, but not by the classical thinkers of his contemporaries. Once again, the doctrine of creation - as presented by the Franciscan priests contains a positive attitude toward the world of God's creation. In contrast to previous centuries are concerned with the afterlife, because life is messy, nasty and short, the new atmosphere of faith recognizes that God created all that is good, except for human sins committed.
Indeed, a mistake to deny ourselves and deaths maintained, the court in the Hereafter, Heaven Hell remains dna things that attract many people. This is expressed in the paintings by Michaelangelp and Grünewald. But the human role in creation, as described in the first chapters of Genesis, is now considered as important as the story of the first sin. Furthermore the re-emergence of interest in the Scriptures that is consistent with the rediscovery of the Church of the study Attention, arose a new appreciation for the dynamic of God's will. Thomas Aquinas had expressed this in his teaching about God as First Cause. Emphasis given to the divine plan of creation, humans move to escape from his fate that also lived among Christians before. That kind of influence that allows the emergence of a new movement.
Many historians have noted nasinalisme development, increases the strength of the middle class and the capitalist system that helps the growth of science, as the effects of the influence of the Reformation. Of course the Reformation is one of the important factors that encourage the ideas of independent thinking that is not always parallel with the official view of the world as required by the Catholic hierarchy. This fostered national interests, and thus encourage the efforts of industry and research is also supported by ilmuiah national prestige.
Many British scholars active in the late sixteenth century and the beginning of XVII is avad priests. Church officials the flexibility to engage in public issues and the philosophy of XVII century, causing them to be able to explore a new natural philosophy and rational apemikiran rank of Descartes and Newton. Drive toward science and technology provided by church figures are memperispkan "basic" culture that allows the emergence of new understanding.
Among the Reformed Churches, stressed the ethical view of work as a good thing for humans. Commended the work is more mundane than the call to enter a monastery, and the importance of social welfare is emphasized. Encouraged Christians to glorify God by working honestly and diligently, many savings and generous in serving the wealth, time and intelligence. John Wesley (1702-1791) - an Anglican priest who founded the Methodist Church to formulate this attitude with the motto: "Earn all you can get, save everything you can you tube, give all you can give!" This is a seed the seeds of good for the spirit of trying (entrepreneurship) in the economic field as well as for the welfare of the community. Scientific effort to show signs of these virtues and therefore considered a blessed thing. Business was declared the work of God and enhance the things that good on his people. So men can understand the God of nature, because nature is part of God's revelation to man.
In among the faithful at the time of Rationalism, the human mind is seen as God's greatest gift to man that makes man capable of "come to think of the mind of God" and take part in his divinity. The influence of Christianity on the basis of culture growth of modern science bengitu real.
The investigation of nature is a positive Christian duty. In his will, Robert Voyle expects that all members of the Royal Society of achieving "a success in their efforts to discover the sublime nature of God's true, and I pray for them and others who investigate the truths of physics with a sincere heart action linking the results of their intelligence with the glory of the Creator of nature and for the welfare of mankind. "
Although it is true that sometimes the Church against the scientific revolution - sometimes by force - it should be recognized that Christianity was a big instrumental in shaping the attitudes and assumptions that enable the emergence of the knowledge revolution. It should be remembered, that nearly everyone involved in the revolution are those who believe!

4. Technology Or Faith: The rivalry

Science and Technology developed out of the Faith (read: the Word of God) through several stages:

First, in the field of astronomy and physics. In the XVII century, Galileo and Kepler see the parallels between the earth with the planets, moon and sun, such as the circulation of the planet that was perfectly circular and the mountains on the surface of the moon. Actually, these findings do not conflict with the Bible, but against the ancient Greek philosophy underlying the theological church at that time. Scientific observations are not sufficient to common belief. This dispute is an intellectual problem.
The dispute occurred in the second stage of the eighteenth century natural science, especially in geology and biology. Hutton, Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin proposed the hypothesis that the changing nature gradually. But their motivation is no longer an intellectual but a moral issue. They are looking for theories that conflict with the Bible. Replace the Ice Age Flood, Evolution Creation replace.
The third stage of the dispute occurred in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth century, especially in psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Information gap with the Bible is so wide that the scholars do not feel the dispute again. The Bible is not considered meaningful.
The fourth stage began in World War II. After World War I, scholars pursue education throughout the world, with the belief that good education can eliminate war from the entire surface of the earth. The reason is:
marked the outbreak of war that their basic philosophy was wrong;
lie factor increases scholars clearly;
increase in new discoveries that are inconsistent with Darwinism, and many scholars from various fields began to remove the Theory of Evolution.

If before the war only against the theologians of Evolution, based on biblical truth. But since World War II precisely the scientists who enter the battlefield of science, believing the truth of the Word of God.
The dispute took place in the fifth round today. During the last 40 years many inventions require basic recovery in all fields of science. In the field of psychology-clinical, for example, there is a movement back to the principles in accordance with the Bible. Some of the conclusions of philosophy and computer science discoveries about the biochemistry of human cell replication, animals, plants, showed the impossibility of evolution. In the field of geology, the depreciation of the earth magnetic field strength to prove that the earth is very young, does not exceed 20,000 years.
If it does not look well, behind the great benefits, there is a reflection of the power of sin and evil of technological developments. Verkuyl has observed some of them, namely:
Reversal of the order of tools and goals. Technology, including equipment not a destination! Feasible technology in the field in question: for what and for what that technology. But one strange thing in the development of modern technology is, that people almost forgot the question. Clear example is the development of nuclear engineering. The discovery of atomic energy is a great discovery. Sam apentingnya with the discovery of fire by early humans. But if in the use of nuclear power that we do not ask, "What power will we use?" Then nuclear power is going to be a tool used by humans to destroy themselves.
Neutralize or negate the personality. Everything is automated due to technological developments made indirectly negate human personality. Human foster technology driven by the desire to live without pain, without sorrow, without struggle, without responsibility, without any personal decisions.
Technology becomes a tool of collectivism and totalitarianism. Without ever thought before, technological developments provide a great opportunity for system-totalitarian political system to develop rapidly. In world history, totalitarian leaders as Adolf Hitler monopolized all means of communication techniques such as: radio, press, film, telephone, telegraph, and so on. Even predicted that antikris will use more high-tech equipment to oppress people.
Bernorma not Menciptakaan circumstances. This has proven audio technology which has created a world of immoral entertainment. Origin of high paying, no matter whether the impact is good or not, the high-tech sophisticated equipment that was used.

5. Faith And Technology: Guild

Albert Einstein said, "Faith without science is blind, and science without faith is Cripple." That means that both the technology and Faith both very important and useful in life. Both are not contradictory but complementary. The Bible itself states that the Lord God gave man the mandate of cultural and natural mandate to rule God's creation and conquer (Genesis 1:27-28).

The Bible tells us some clear guidance about the technology:
Technology is the task. He was given the task of God the Creator of heaven and earth, so also the task given by the Lord Jesus Christ, Savior of the world. People who make a discovery, he was obeyed, consciously or not, the task can be read from Genesis 1 says, "subdue the earth!" And the user's technological discoveries were also obeyed, consciously or not, the task that.
Technology and Moral. Every believer can explore and use technology by abiding by and accountable to the norms of God. Misuse of technology can be arrested by a positive use of technology in accordance with the norms of God and the struggle to eradicate the misuse of technology.
Technology and Miracles. The Bible states that the Bible can still take place because of his power does not change (Hebrews 13:8). Where once the technology is not able to provide a solution, then every believer still hope to the living God to reveal His miracles.

To further strengthen the relationship between technology and faith, the author notes that in the twentieth century ago, some famous scientists, Nobel laureate are Christians incredible, they include:
Dorothy Hodgkin, British kristallografer, Nobel Prize
Charles Coulson, the famous mathematical physicist
Sir Robert Boyd, a pioneer the field of atmospheric physics of X-ray
Werner von Braun, father of the American space program akasa
Francis Collins, the inventor of cystic fibrosis gene
Allan Sandage, an astronomer at the Observatory famous Mt. Palomar

6. Solutions

In order to keep the tension does not occur between technology and faith, the author proposes some practical steps as follows:
Technology and Faith was introduced to children as early as mungin, both in family, school, church or scope of services in the wider community, so they see them as two things are complementary.
Print materials literature on Christian figures who became founder-inventor of the technology such as Sir Isaac Newton, Blaise Pascal, etc..
Various forms of assistance to the community of faith, including the sermon (both in Sunday School, Youth and Youth General) filled material balance between faith and science and technology.
Encouraging and supporting the community who have a good intellectual capacity to continue learning, whether in the form of scholarships and other facilities.
Bring science and technology experts to give a seminar on science and technology in language that is easily digested by the lay community.
Providing biblical moral code so that when the continuous well-controlled technology, not used to pride themselves and destructive, but to glorify God and be constructive.

7. Conclusion

The tension between faith and technology was sometimes burdensome believers, but the tension is at once a stimulus or incentive to think of even more profound sense of divine revelation, which is not merely a dead letters, but the living Word of God and turn all ages.
In modern construction, the religious (read: Christianity) is expected to play a positive role. Donation is only possible when every believer can leave a view of the world (worldview), customs and ancient sociological structure that no longer sufficient. This does not mean leaving the faith, but live the faith remains the same in form, manifestation, in ways that fit for the XXI century man. If Christianity was successfully carrying out its role, it can provide a valuable contribution: manusi ayang foster ethically responsible and therefore able to use the technology so that all people can live a better life.

8. Bibliography

-, Religion and Knowledge Sciences, (adaptation of Wilkes, Keith. Religion and the Science),
Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka and Catholic Higher Education Foundation, 1977.
-, The Bible, Jakarta: Indonesian Bible Institute, 1999.
Carson, D.A. and John D. Woodbridge (ed.), God And Culture, Jakarta: Momentum, 2002.
Heath, W. Stanley, Faith And Science, Diktat Kuliah, Bandung: Tiranus Bible Institute, 1990.
Schaeffer, Francis A. A Christian World View, Vol. 5: A Christian View of the West, Wheaton,
Illinois: Crossway Books, 1993.
Verkuyl, J. Christian Ethics: Culture, Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 1982.

pdt. drs. petrus f. setiadarma, mdiv.

This article was written in Spiritual | Tags: Spiritual Articles